A review of selected diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with bladder cancer
Article published in Urologia Polska 2007/60/2.
Wojciech Michalski, Tomasz Demkow
- Klinika Nowotworów Układu Moczowego, Centrum Onkologii - Instytut im. Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie w Warszawie
urinary bladder, urinary bladder cancer, diagnostic markers, prognostic markers
- Introduction. The gold standard in diagnosing the urinary bladder cancer remains cystoscopy. Due to its being invasive and expensive, other markers are being investigated as diagnostic and prognostic factors. In pursuit of "the ideal marker", the following features are taken into account: sensitivity, specificity, costs, reproducibility, and usefulness in tumours of different clinical stages. The newest studies focus on understanding the biology of the cancer and using molecular techniques.
- The aim of the study. The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the literature concerning chosen markers in terms of their sensitivity and specificity. We describe markers used in diagnosing both primary and recurrent tumours as well as prognostic markers implicating the overall and disease-free survival rates. The following are described: voided urine cytology, haematuria tests, BTA stat and BTA TRAK tests, NMP 22, surviving, cytokeratins, HA-HAase test, telomerase, EGFR receptor, MIB-1 HER-2, TP53 gene, mdm-2, bcl 2 and others.
- Methods. The cited data were obtained from both original and review articles published in the latest issues of urological periodicals as well as from Medline database.
- Results. The described markers are of different sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, their clinical usefulness in diagnosing relapses and prognosing the course of the bladder cancer is different. Their value is often different for different clinical stages and pathological grades. Therefore, further prospective studies are necessary.
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