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Human genome decoded
Article published in Urologia Polska 2007/60/4.


Stanisław Wroński
Oddział Urologii, Szpital Wojewódzki im. dr. J. Biziela w Bydgoszczy
Regionalny Bank Tkanek, Szpital Wojewódzki im. dr J. Biziela w Bydgoszczy


genome, Human Genome Project, DNA sequencing


Presented paper discusses history of realization of Human Genome Project. Author presents laboratory methods, results, benefits and perspectives coming from Human Genome Project research.
In 15 and 16 February 2001 editions of „Nature” and „Science” scientific magazines published preliminary results of long-standing preparations and experiments were published. Researches described draft sequence of almost 3 billion human genome nucleotides – about 90% complete. The sequencing of human genome was possible by direct sequencing of DNA fragments and by assembling those fragments on the basis of sequence overlap – “shotgun sequencing”. Researchers estimated that size of human genome is 3.2 Gigabases and that there are about 30,000 protein-encoding genes in human cell with also 740 genes making non-protein-coding RNA’s. The benefits and practical results of HGP boosted genetics to the new frontiers similarly as “Apollo” Moon landing project caused technical progress in 1960’s. New field of science – genomic has emerged as separate branch. It is clear that sequencing and encoding of human and other genomes gives opportunity to discover differences between species and to describe evolutionary past how nature evolved.
The results of human genome sequence will be unquestionably applied in medicine in identification of etiology of different diseases, offering new therapeutic tools. In spite of many benefits, advance in our knowledge of the human genome creates new ethical and social problems.


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Stanisław Wroński
Szpital Wojewódzki im. dr. J. Biziela
Oddział Urologii
ul. Ujejskiego 75
85-168 Bydgoszcz
tel. (052) 371 16 00